Clinical Diagnostics

Group B Streptococcus

Group B streptococcus (GBS) infection is the infection caused by the bacterium Streptococcus agalactiae. Group B streptococcal infection can cause serious illness and sometimes death, especially in newborns, the elderly, and people with compromised immune systems. In general, GBS is a harmless commensal bacterium being part of the human microbiota colonizing the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of up to 30% of healthy human adults (asymptomatic carriers).


Vaginal colonization rates range from 4 to 36%, with most studies reporting over 20%. GBS is the main cause of bacterial infections in newborns, such as septicemia, pneumonia, and meningitis, which can lead to death or long-term after effects. Infections in newborns are separated into two clinical types, early-onset disease (EOGBS) and late-onset disease (LOGBS). EOGBS manifests from 0 to 7 living days in the newborn, most of the cases being apparent within 24 hr. LOGBS starts between 7 and 90 days after birth. EOGBS is acquired through exposure of the fetus or baby to GBS from the vagina either in utero or during birth.

Available Tests
Group B streptococcus Panel
Documents
Info Sheet  Requisition Form 
Test Information
Organism List: Staphylococcus agalactiae
 
Clinical Utility: Retrogen offers early & accurate detection, rapid turnaround times, and only requires a single, non-invasive sample collection. Your referring physician will be provided with a detailed, comprehensive report that leads to actionable decisions and forward treatment options.
 
Method: Retrogen carries out real-time molecular PCR on DNA extracted from vaginal swabs to screen for microorganisms. This quantitative approach uses TaqMan chemistry from Life Technologies to detect pathogen specific gene sequences.
Ordering
Test ID: #8003
Turn-around Time: 24-48 hours
Preferred Specimen: Vaginal swab
Billing
CPT Codes: 87081, 87150. MIC performed add charge 87186 or 87184
Billing Information: View Billing Information
Web Resources
  1. Mayo Clinic Staff (Updated 2012 February 25). Vagina: What's normal, what's not.
    http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/vagina/MY01913/METHOD=print through http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed March 2013.
  2. Gore, H. (Updated 2011 October 27). Vaginitis.
    http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/257141-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com.
  3. Samra-Latif, O. (Updated 2012 January 13). Vulvovaginitis.
    http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/270872-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed March 2013.
  4. Leber, M. and Tirumani, A. (Updated 2012 April 16). Vulvovaginitis in Emergency Medicine.
    http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/797497-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed March 2013.
  5. CDC.
    Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines. MMWR Recomm Rep 2010(https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5912a1.htm);59(No. RR-12).
References
  1. Amsel R, Totten PA, Spiegel CA, et al. Nonspecific vaginitis: Diagnostic criteria and microbial and epidemiologic associations. Am J Med 74(1):14-22, 1983.
  2. Verstraelen H, Verhelsy R. Bacterial vaginosis: An update on diagnosis and treatment. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 7(9):1109-1124, 2009.
  3. Spiegel C, Amsel R, Holmes K. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis by direct gram stain of vaginal fluid. J. Clin. Microbiol. July 1983 vol. 18 no. 1, 170-177.
  4. Workowski, KA; Berman, S; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (CDC) (17 December 2010). "Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010." MMWR. Recommendations and reports : Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Recommendations and reports / Centers for Disease Control. 59 (RR-12): 1-110.
  5. Warner L, Klausner JD, Rietmeijer CA, et al. Effect of a brief video intervention on incident infection among patients attending sexually transmitted disease clinics. PLoS Med 2008;5:919-27.
  6. Clement, Meredith E.; Okeke, N. Lance; Hicks, Charles B. (2014). "Treatment of Syphilis". JAMA. 312 (18): 1905.