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Clinical Diagnostics

Yeast Infection (Candidiasis)

Candidiasis is an infection caused by a species of the yeast Candida, usually Candida albicans. This is a common cause of vaginal infections in women. Also, Candida may cause mouth infections in people with reduced immune function, or in patients taking certain antibiotics. Candida can be found in virtually all normal people but causes problems in only a fraction. In recent years, however, several serious categories of candidiasis have become more common, due to overuse of antibiotics, the rise of AIDS, the increase in organ transplantations, and the use of invasive devices (catheters, artificial joints and valves)-all of which increase a patient's susceptibility to infection.

Most women with vaginal candidiasis experience severe vaginal itching. They also have a discharge that often looks like cottage cheese and has a sweet or bread-like odor. The vulva and vagina can be red, swollen, and painful. Sexual intercourse can also be painful.

Available Tests
Yeast Infection (Candidiasis) Panel
Info Sheet  Requisition Form 
Test Information
Organism List: Atopobium vaginae, BVAB2, Gardnerella vaginalis, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus iners, Lactobacillus jensenii, Megasphaera 1, Megasphaera 2, Mobiluncus curtisii, Mobiluncus mulieris, Prevotella bivia
Clinical Utility: Retrogen's Bacterial Vaginosis Program utilizes Thermo-Fisher's patented TaqMan technology, providing accurate diagnostic testing to identify and discriminate among 14 pathogens known to be responsible for bacterial vaginosis. The program only requires a single, non-invasive sample collection, has very short turnaround time and provides your referring physician a detailed, comprehensive report that leads to actionable decisions and forward treatment options.
Method: Retrogen carries out real-time PCR on DNA extracted from vaginal swabs to screen for microorganisms known to be associated with BV. This quantitative approach uses TaqMan chemistry from Life Technologies to detect 16S rRNA gene sequences from pathogenic bacterial species.
Test ID: #8004
Turn-around Time: 24-48 hours
Preferred Specimen: Vaginal swab
CPT Codes: 87481x4
Billing Information: View Billing Information
Web Resources
  1. Mayo Clinic Staff (Updated 2012 February 25). Vagina: What's normal, what's not.
    http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/vagina/MY01913/METHOD=print through http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed March 2013.
  2. Gore, H. (Updated 2011 October 27). Vaginitis.
    http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/257141-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com.
  3. Samra-Latif, O. (Updated 2012 January 13). Vulvovaginitis.
    http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/270872-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed March 2013.
  4. Leber, M. and Tirumani, A. (Updated 2012 April 16). Vulvovaginitis in Emergency Medicine.
    http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/797497-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed March 2013.
  5. CDC.
    Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines. MMWR Recomm Rep 2010(https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5912a1.htm);59(No. RR-12).
  1. Amsel R, Totten PA, Spiegel CA, et al. Nonspecific vaginitis: Diagnostic criteria and microbial and epidemiologic associations. Am J Med 74(1):14-22, 1983.
  2. Verstraelen H, Verhelsy R. Bacterial vaginosis: An update on diagnosis and treatment. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 7(9):1109-1124, 2009.
  3. Spiegel C, Amsel R, Holmes K. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis by direct gram stain of vaginal fluid. J. Clin. Microbiol. July 1983 vol. 18 no. 1, 170-177.
  4. Workowski, KA; Berman, S; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (CDC) (17 December 2010). "Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010." MMWR. Recommendations and reports : Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Recommendations and reports / Centers for Disease Control. 59 (RR-12): 1-110.
  5. Warner L, Klausner JD, Rietmeijer CA, et al. Effect of a brief video intervention on incident infection among patients attending sexually transmitted disease clinics. PLoS Med 2008;5:919-27.
  6. Clement, Meredith E.; Okeke, N. Lance; Hicks, Charles B. (2014). "Treatment of Syphilis". JAMA. 312 (18): 1905.